Deploying the WebSphere EJB thin client in ServiceMix
In a previous post I explained how to install the SIB thin client into ServiceMix and use it in a Camel route. In that post I used the JmsFactoryFactory API to create the JMS connection factory and the Queue object. However, it should also be possible to configure them in WebSphere and look them up using JNDI. Performing that JNDI lookup requires two additional libraries:
The EJB thin client:
The IBM ORB (Object Request Broker):
Both JARs can be found in the
runtimes directory in the WebSphere installation. The latter is required only on non-IBM
JREs. In the following I will make the assumption that ServiceMix is running on an Oracle JRE and that we need both
In a Java SE environment it is relatively straightforward to create a Camel configuration that uses the EJB thin client to look up the necessary JMS resources from WebSphere. Here is a sample configuration that is basically equivalent to the one used in the earlier post:
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:camel="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring" xmlns:jee="http://www.springframework.org/schema/jee" xmlns:util="http://www.springframework.org/schema/util" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/jee http://www.springframework.org/schema/jee/spring-jee.xsd http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd http://www.springframework.org/schema/util http://www.springframework.org/schema/util/spring-util.xsd http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring/camel-spring.xsd"> <camel:camelContext> <camel:route> <camel:from uri="file://test"/> <camel:to uri="sib:queue:jms/testQ"/> </camel:route> </camel:camelContext> <bean id="sib" class="org.apache.camel.component.jms.JmsComponent"> <property name="connectionFactory"> <jee:jndi-lookup resource-ref="false" jndi-name="jms/testQCF" environment-ref="env" lookup-on-startup="false" expected-type="javax.jms.QueueConnectionFactory"/> </property> <property name="destinationResolver"> <bean class="org.springframework.jms.support.destination.JndiDestinationResolver"> <property name="jndiEnvironment" ref="env"/> </bean> </property> </bean> <util:properties id="env"> <prop key="java.naming.factory.initial">com.ibm.websphere.naming.WsnInitialContextFactory</prop> <prop key="java.naming.provider.url">corbaloc:iiop:isis:2809</prop> </util:properties> </beans>
The only requirements are:
The three JARs (the SIB thin client, the EJB thin client and the ORB) must be in the classpath.
A queue (
jms/testQ) and a connection factory (
jms/testQCF) must be configured in WebSphere. The provider endpoints must be set manually in the connection factory configuration. If you are using an existing connection factory, remember that specifying the provider endpoints is not required for applications running on WebSphere. Therefore it is possible (and even likely) that they are not set.
The provider URL must point to the
BOOTSTRAP_ADDRESSof the application server. If the JNDI resources are configured on a WebSphere cluster, use a
corbalocURL with multiple IIOP endpoints.
The challenge is now to make that configuration work on ServiceMix. We will make the following assumptions:
The ServiceMix version is 4.5.3.
We will use the libraries from WAS 188.8.131.52.
The SIB thin client has already been deployed on ServiceMix using the instructions in my earlier post.
The remaining task is then to deploy the EJB thin client and the ORB. The EJB thin client is actually already packaged as an OSGi bundle, while the ORB is packaged as a fragment that plugs into the EJB thin client. Therefore it should be enough to install these two artifacts into ServiceMix. However, it turns out that this is not as simple as one would expect.
Problem 1: Missing required bundle
The first problem that appears is that after installing the EJB thin client and the ORB, an attempt to start the EJB thin client bundle results in the following error:
org.osgi.framework.BundleException: Unresolved constraint in bundle com.ibm.ws.ejb.thinclient : Unable to resolve 182.0: missing requirement [182.0] module; (bundle-symbolic-name=org.eclipse.osgi)
Inspection of the manifests of these two artifacts indeed shows that they have the following directive:
Obviously, IBM packaged these artifacts for the Equinox platform (which is also used by WebSphere itself). Because
ServiceMix runs on Apache Felix, the bundle
org.eclipse.osgi doesn’t exist. Since the EJB thin client bundle has an
activator, it is likely that the purpose of this directive is simply to satisfy the dependency on the
One possible solution for this problem would be to modify the manifests and replace the
Require-Bundle directive by an
Import-Package directive. However, there is another solution that doesn’t require modifying the IBM
artifacts. The idea is to create a “compatibility” bundle with the following manifest (and without any other content):
Manifest-Version: 1.0 Bundle-ManifestVersion: 2 Bundle-Name: Equinox compatibility bundle Bundle-SymbolicName: org.eclipse.osgi Bundle-Version: 0.0.0 Import-Package: org.osgi.framework Export-Package: org.osgi.framework
Export-Package directive makes the
org.osgi.framework package available to the EJB thin client bundle. Since the
compatibility bundle also imports that package, it will effectively be wired to the bundle that actually contains these
classes (which must exist in any OSGi runtime because the
org.osgi.framework package is part of the core OSGi API).
Problem 2: Constraint violation related to
After installing the compatibility
org.eclipse.osgi bundle, the EJB thin client bundle still fails to start. The error
message is now:
org.osgi.framework.BundleException: Uses constraint violation. Unable to resolve module com.ibm.ws.ejb.thinclient [182.0] because it exports package 'javax.transaction.xa' and is also exposed to it from module org.apache.aries.transaction.manager [58.0] via the following dependency chain: com.ibm.ws.ejb.thinclient [182.0] import: (package=javax.jms) | export: package=javax.jms; uses:=javax.transaction.xa org.apache.geronimo.specs.geronimo-jms_1.1_spec [48.0] import: (package=javax.transaction.xa) | export: package=javax.transaction.xa org.apache.aries.transaction.manager [58.0]
Let’s first decode what this actually means. The thin client bundle exports the
javax.transaction.xa package, but it
doesn’t import it. That implies that it can’t be wired to the
javax.transaction.xa package exported by the Aries
transaction manager bundle. At the same time the thin client imports the
javax.jms package. The OSGi runtime chooses
to wire that import to the Geronimo JMS API bundle. The
javax.jms package contains classes that refer to classes in
javax.transaction.xa package as part of their public API (see e.g.
XASession). That is expressed by the
uses constraint (and a corresponding
Import-Package directive) declared by the Geronimo bundle. However, the OSGi
runtime cannot wire that import back to the thin client because this would cause a circular dependency; it has to wire
it to the Aries bundle. That however would cause an issue because the thin client bundle now “sees” classes in the
javax.transaction.xa package loaded from two different bundles (itself and the Aries bundle). Therefore the OSGi
runtime refuses to resolve the thin client bundle.
That sounds like a tricky problem, but the solution is astonishingly simple: just remove the Geronimo JMS bundle!
After that you should restart ServiceMix so that it can properly rewire all bundles.
To see why this works, let’s first note that in ServiceMix, the
javax.transaction.xa package is configured for
boot delegation (see the
org.osgi.framework.bootdelegation property in
etc/custom.properties). That means that
classes in that package will always be loaded from the boot class loader, i.e. from the JRE. That in turn means that the
issue detected by the OSGi runtime will actually never occur: no matter how imports and exports for
javax.transaction.xa are formally wired together, it’s always the classes from the JRE that will be loaded anyway. The
uses:=javax.transaction.xa declaration in the Geronimo bundle is therefore effectively irrelevant and could be
Now recall that we made the assumption that the SIB thin client bundle is already installed. That bundle exports
javax.jms as well, but since it also imports that package, this export will not be used as long as the Geronimo JMS
bundle is installed. Let’s have a closer look at the imports and exports of that bundle:
karaf@root> osgi:headers com.ibm.ws.sib.client.thin.jms IBM SIB JMS Thin Client (181) ----------------------------- Manifest-Version = 1.0 Specification-Title = sibc.client.thin.bundle Eclipse-LazyStart = true Specification-Version = 8.5.0 Specification-Vendor = IBM Corp. Ant-Version = Apache Ant 1.8.2 Copyright = Licensed Materials - Property of IBM 5724-J08, 5724-I63, 5724-H88, 5724-H89, 5655-N02, 5733-W70 Copyright IBM Corp. 2007, 2009 All Rights Reserved. US Government Users Restricted Rights - Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corp. Implementation-Version = WAS855.IM [gm1319.01] Implementation-Vendor = IBM Corp. Implementation-Title = sibc.client.thin.bundle Created-By = pxi3260sr10-20111208_01 (SR10) (IBM Corporation) Bundle-Vendor = IBM Corp. Bundle-Localization = plugin Bundle-RequiredExecutionEnvironment = J2SE-1.5 Bundle-Name = IBM SIB JMS Thin Client Bundle-SymbolicName = com.ibm.ws.sib.client.thin.jms; singleton:=true Bundle-Classpath = . Bundle-Version = 8.5.0 Bundle-ManifestVersion = 2 Import-Package = javax.jms, javax.resource, javax.resource.spi, javax.resource.spi.security, javax.management Export-Package = com.ibm.websphere.sib.api.jms, com.ibm.ws.sib.api.jmsra.impl, com.ibm.ws.sib.api.jms.impl, javax.resource, javax.resource.spi, javax.resource.spi.security, javax.management, javax.jms;version=1.1.0 Require-Bundle = system.bundle
javax.transaction.xa isn’t mentioned at all. Looking at the content of that bundle, one can also see
that it neither contains that package. This means that the SIB thin client was packaged with the assumption that
javax.transaction.xa is configured for boot delegation (while the Geronimo JMS API bundle doesn’t rely on that
assumption). This is exactly what we need in our case. By removing the Geronimo bundle, we force the OSGi runtime to use
javax.jms package exported by the SIB thin client, and that solves the issue.
The EJB thin client indeed starts properly after doing that:
[ 181] [Active ] [ ] [ ] [ 80] IBM SIB JMS Thin Client (8.5.0) [ 182] [Active ] [ ] [ ] [ 80] WebSphere EJB Thin Client Runtime (8.0.0) Fragments: 183 [ 183] [Resolved ] [ ] [ ] [ 80] WebSphere ORB Fragment (8.0.0) Hosts: 182 [ 185] [Active ] [ ] [ ] [ 80] Equinox compatibility bundle (0.0.0)
Problem 3: Inconsistent
We can now deploy the Spring configuration shown earlier. It deploys and starts successfully, but when trying to use it
(by dropping a file into the
test directory), an error occurs. The relevant part of the stack trace is as follows:
com.ibm.websphere.naming.CannotInstantiateObjectException: Exception occurred while the JNDI NamingManager was processing a javax.naming.Reference object. [Root exception is java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: Ljavax/resource/spi/TransactionSupport$TransactionSupportLevel;] at com.ibm.ws.naming.util.Helpers.processSerializedObjectForLookupExt at com.ibm.ws.naming.util.Helpers.processSerializedObjectForLookup at com.ibm.ws.naming.jndicos.CNContextImpl.processBoundObjectForLookup at com.ibm.ws.naming.jndicos.CNContextImpl.processResolveResults at com.ibm.ws.naming.jndicos.CNContextImpl.doLookup at com.ibm.ws.naming.jndicos.CNContextImpl.doLookup at com.ibm.ws.naming.jndicos.CNContextImpl.lookupExt at com.ibm.ws.naming.jndicos.CNContextImpl.lookup at com.ibm.ws.naming.util.WsnInitCtx.lookup at com.ibm.ws.naming.util.WsnInitCtx.lookup at javax.naming.InitialContext.lookup at org.springframework.jndi.JndiTemplate$1.doInContext at org.springframework.jndi.JndiTemplate.execute at org.springframework.jndi.JndiTemplate.lookup at org.springframework.jndi.JndiTemplate.lookup at org.springframework.jndi.JndiLocatorSupport.lookup at org.springframework.jndi.JndiObjectLocator.lookup at org.springframework.jndi.JndiObjectTargetSource.getTarget ... 50 more Caused by: java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: Ljavax/resource/spi/TransactionSupport$TransactionSupportLevel; at java.lang.Class.getDeclaredFields0 at java.lang.Class.privateGetDeclaredFields at java.lang.Class.getDeclaredField at java.io.ObjectStreamClass.getDeclaredSUID at java.io.ObjectStreamClass.access$700 at java.io.ObjectStreamClass$2.run at java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged at java.io.ObjectStreamClass.<init> at java.io.ObjectStreamClass.lookup at java.io.ObjectStreamClass.initNonProxy at java.io.ObjectInputStream.readNonProxyDesc at java.io.ObjectInputStream.readClassDesc at java.io.ObjectInputStream.readOrdinaryObject at java.io.ObjectInputStream.readObject0 at java.io.ObjectInputStream.readObject at com.ibm.ejs.j2c.ConnectionFactoryBuilderImpl.getObjectInstance at javax.naming.spi.NamingManager.getObjectInstance at com.ibm.ws.naming.util.Helpers.processSerializedObjectForLookupExt ... 67 more
The error occurs when Spring attempts to look up the JMS connection factory from JNDI. It is actually caused by an issue
in the packaging of the IBM artifacts. The SIB and EJB thin clients both have
javax.resource.spi in their
Export-Package directives. Since that package is not exported by any other bundle deployed on
ServiceMix, the OSGi runtime has two possibilities to resolve this situation: either it wires the
import from the EJB thin client to the SIB thin client bundle or vice versa. The problem is that the
javax.resource.spi package in the SIB thin client is incomplete: it contains fewer classes than the same package in
the EJB thin client. If the OSGi runtime selects the package from the SIB thin client bundle, then this leads to the
NoClassDefFoundError shown above.
One solution would be to change the order of installation of the two bundles in order to convince the OSGi runtime to
javax.resource.spi exported by the EJB thin client. However, this would be a very fragile solution. A
better solution is to add another bundle that exports the full
javax.resource.spi package (without importing it). In
that case, the OSGi runtime only has a single possibility to wire the imports/exports for that package, namely to use
the version exported by the third bundle. Such a bundle actually exists in the WebSphere runtime and adding it to
ServiceMix indeed solves the problem:
Problem 4: Class loading issues related to the IBM ORB
After installing that bundle, you should restart ServiceMix to allow it to rewire the bundles properly. The JNDI lookup of the connection factory now succeeds, but another failure occurs when Spring tries to create a connection:
java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: com/ibm/CORBA/iiop/ORB at java.lang.Class.forName0 at java.lang.Class.forName at com.ibm.ws.util.PlatformHelperFactory.getBackupHelper at com.ibm.ws.util.PlatformHelperFactory.getPlatformHelper at com.ibm.ws.sib.trm.client.TrmSICoreConnectionFactoryImpl.<clinit> at java.lang.Class.forName0 at java.lang.Class.forName at com.ibm.ws.sib.trm.TrmSICoreConnectionFactory.<clinit> at com.ibm.wsspi.sib.core.selector.SICoreConnectionFactorySelector.getSICoreConnectionFactory at com.ibm.wsspi.sib.core.selector.SICoreConnectionFactorySelector.getSICoreConnectionFactory at com.ibm.ws.sib.api.jmsra.impl.JmsJcaConnectionFactoryImpl.createCoreConnection at com.ibm.ws.sib.api.jmsra.impl.JmsJcaConnectionFactoryImpl.createCoreConnection at com.ibm.ws.sib.api.jmsra.impl.JmsJcaConnectionFactoryImpl.createConnection at com.ibm.ws.sib.api.jms.impl.JmsManagedConnectionFactoryImpl.createConnection at com.ibm.ws.sib.api.jms.impl.JmsManagedConnectionFactoryImpl.createConnection at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0 at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke at org.springframework.aop.support.AopUtils.invokeJoinpointUsingReflection at org.springframework.aop.framework.JdkDynamicAopProxy.invoke at com.sun.proxy.$Proxy52.createConnection at org.springframework.jms.support.JmsAccessor.createConnection at org.springframework.jms.core.JmsTemplate.execute at org.apache.camel.component.jms.JmsConfiguration$CamelJmsTemplate.send at org.apache.camel.component.jms.JmsProducer.doSend at org.apache.camel.component.jms.JmsProducer.processInOnly at org.apache.camel.component.jms.JmsProducer.process ... 42 more Caused by: java.lang.ClassNotFoundException: com.ibm.CORBA.iiop.ORB not found by com.ibm.ws.sib.client.thin.jms at org.apache.felix.framework.ModuleImpl.findClassOrResourceByDelegation at org.apache.felix.framework.ModuleImpl.access$400 at org.apache.felix.framework.ModuleImpl$ModuleClassLoader.loadClass at java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass ... 70 more
Interestingly, if one installs the ORB fragment before the EJB thin client, then the Camel route fails much earlier
(during the creation of the
InitialContext) with an error that is different, but related to the same
org.omg.CORBA.INITIALIZE: can't instantiate default ORB implementation com.ibm.CORBA.iiop.ORB vmcid: 0x0 minor code: 0 completed: No at org.omg.CORBA.ORB.create_impl at org.omg.CORBA.ORB.init at com.ibm.ws.orb.GlobalORBFactory.init at com.ibm.ejs.oa.EJSORBImpl.initializeORB at com.ibm.ejs.oa.EJSClientORBImpl.<init> at com.ibm.ejs.oa.EJSClientORBImpl.<init> at com.ibm.ejs.oa.EJSORB.init ... 68 more Caused by: java.lang.ClassCastException: com.ibm.CORBA.iiop.ORB cannot be cast to org.omg.CORBA.ORB at org.omg.CORBA.ORB.create_impl ... 74 more
It is not clear whether this is a packaging issue in the IBM artifacts or a bug in Karaf/Felix. A solution is to add the ORB to the endorsed libraries instead of installing it as an OSGi fragment. At first this might seem to be an ugly workaround, but it actually makes sense. In the IBM JRE, these classes are part of the runtime libraries. By adding them to the endorsed libraries one basically makes the Oracle JRE look a bit more like an IBM JRE.
Note that if we endorse the IBM ORB, then it is actually more naturally to use the JARs shipped with the IBM JRE instead
of the ORB bundle. These JARs can be found in the
java/jre/lib directory in the WebSphere installation. We need the
following JARs from that directory:
ibmorbapi.jar. After copying these files to the
lib/endorsed directory in the ServiceMix installation, remove the ORB fragment:
To make the ORB classes visible to the EJB thin client it is necessary to add
com.ibm.* to the
org.osgi.framework.bootdelegation property in
etc/custom.properties. Note that this would also be necessary on an
IBM JRE. It means that the EJB thin client assumes that boot delegation is enabled for these packages.
Problem 5: Missing classes from
After restarting ServiceMix, one now gets the following error:
java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: Could not initialize class com.ibm.ws.sib.trm.client.CredentialType
If one looks at the first occurrence of the error, one can see that the failure to initialize the
is caused by the following exception:
java.lang.ClassNotFoundException: com.ibm.ws.bootstrap.BootHandlerException not found by com.ibm.ws.sib.client.thin.jms
Inspection of the content of the JMS thin client bundle shows that it contains the
com.ibm.ws.bootstrap package, but
is missing the
BootHandlerException class. That class is actually part of
lib/bootstrap.jar in the WebSphere
runtime. We could add that JAR to the endorsed libraries, but in contrast to the ORB classes, this is not a natural
solution. It is actually enough to add it to the main class loader used to load Karaf. This can be done by copying the
JAR to the
lib directory in the ServiceMix installation. Note that the classes will be visible to the SIB thin client
because we already added
com.ibm.* to the boot delegation list before.
bootstrap.jar and restarting ServiceMix, the sample route now executes successfully! Interestingly
bootstrap.jar is not required when executing the sample in a Java SE environment. This means that the issue occurs on
a code path that is only executed in an OSGi environment.
Summary and conclusion
To summarize, the following steps are necessary to deploy the SIB and EJB thin clients as OSGi bundles in ServiceMix:
Copy the following files from the WebSphere installation to the
On an IBM JRE, this step would be skipped.
lib/bootstrap.jarfrom the WebSphere installation to the
Create and install the Equinox compatibility bundle as described above.
Install the following bundles from the WebSphere runtime:
We have also seen that the SIB and EJB thin client bundles have several packaging issues. In particular they appear to
have been bundled under the assumption that a certain number of packages are configured for boot delegation. As already
argued in relation to the dependency on the
org.eclipse.osgi bundle, the reason is probably that they were created for
Equinox as a target OSGi runtime. In fact, the assumptions made about boot delegation are compatible with the
default configuration in Equinox. What is more interesting is the fact that these packages also include
com.ibm.ws.bootstrap. That package is visible through boot delegation only in WebSphere, but the thin clients are
obviously not supposed to be deployed as OSGi bundles in WebSphere…
It should also be noted that the solution was only tested with a very simple scenario. It is possible that in more complex scenarios, additional issues arise.
Finally, given the difficulties to install the thin clients as OSGi artifacts, one may reasonably argue that it might actually be simpler to just repackage them…